The theory of evolution quoted by Charles Darwin- "Survival of the fittest", was meant to define the key element of adaptation necessary to the changes taking place around and molding of the characteristics of a species towards meeting basic purpose of surviving. The animal kingdom did evolve, but few species got dropped in between. The plant kingdom did evolve, but a few species got dropped. The homo sapiens did evolve, but species of animal/ plant kingdom got annihilated. You see, we were the smart asses!!
Once the neighbouring kingdoms had been vanquished/ rather taken care of, like a true emperor, Homo sapiens turned towards their own in search of that victor's morale booster.
Like any kingdom, family or group, each individual in that band was allocated a task- a responsibility to fulfill the needs of the group of individuals by efficiently accomplishing the assigned duty. Thus, one set of people were tasked with raising cattle, one set for farming, one set for hunting, one set for making the weaponry, one set to worship their deities etc. etc. and ONE, usually an elder to run the whole set up. You getting a picture? Not yet. Ok. As a generation took over, the individuals "transferred" that knowledge within their family, to their wards. Then it was their next generation that handled that "task"/ "duty". As the ages went by, newer groups were discovered... new people were tasked with handling those duties... and they in turn passed it on to their wards.
This process got carried on for generations and got repeated over and over again. The individuals became adept at these due to generations of data and that duty became their "Identity" instead. They individuals now got referred to as- Cattle Grazers, Farmers, Warriors (Kshatriyas), Iron Smith, Brahmins (priest), Traders, Scavengers..... Rulers (kings) etc. The divide among the individuals widened as economics got introduced in between. The people tasked with menial tasks earned little, thus widening the gap to the prosperous individuals of other tasks. These identities over the ages translated into what we called castes. This has been "MY" general understanding of whatever history of the civilizations I had managed to read about.
Come the Modern age, social stigma got attached to the individuals depending on the tasks they were handling. Along with the economic divide and the power clouted by the powerful sections of the society these groups (I wouldn't want to refer to them as castes) got castigated, they were denied many a basic rights. There were many reformists who fought for the up-liftment of these under privileged- some chose the discussion medium & other preferred violence.
Let’s jump to post independent days India. Right through our Civics subject, we were taught about how our Constitution was formulated and how one Mr.BabaSaheb Ambedkar with the foresight or goodwill, thought that for uniform development of various segments of the society fragmented based on the age old discrimination would be able to get together to build a formidable society & great India. The very basic principle behind this amendment was to ensure that everyone is tagged along as the country progressed further. These adjustment (if they can be referred so) were meant last for a defined period and post that period- C E A S E to exist. But post-independence the situations changed, the people's mindset changed...so did the thinking of the people in Power. With great power comes.... greater greed/ want!
Let me bring to you my perspective of how things changed for various groups involved, because of this small act…. To follow in next post. We will in the end get to how Homo Sapiens vanquished their own kingdom.